Freedom of expression, freedom of speech, and freedom of the press are human rights protected by Pancasila, the 1945 Constitution of Indonesia, and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of the United Nations. The existence of cyberspace media in Indonesia is also part of the freedom of expression, freedom of speech, and freedom of the press.
Cyberspace media has special characteristics that require guidelines so that its management can be carried out professionally, fulfilling its functions, rights, and obligations in accordance with Law Number 40 of 1999 concerning the Press and the Code of Journalistic Ethics. Therefore, the Press Council, together with press organizations, cyberspace media managers, and the public, compile Guidelines for Cyberspace Media Reporting as follows:
Cyberspace Media is all forms of media that use the internet and carry out journalistic activities, as well as fulfilling the requirements of the Press Law and the Press Company Standards set by the Press Council.
User Generated Content (UGC) is all content created and/or published by cyberspace media users, including articles, images, comments, audio, video, and various forms of uploads that are attached to cyberspace media, such as blogs, forums, reader or viewer comments, and other forms.
2. News verification and balance
a. In principle, every news item must go through verification.
b. News that may harm others require verification of the same news to fulfill the principles of accuracy and balance.
c. The provisions in item (a) above are exempted, on the condition that:
The news really contains urgent public interests; The first source of the news is a source that clearly mentions its identity, credible, and competent; The news subject that needs to be confirmed is unknown or cannot be interviewed; The media provides an explanation to readers that the news still needs further verification, which is attempted as soon as possible. The explanation is included at the end of the same news, in parentheses and using italics.
d. After publishing news in accordance with item (c), the media is obligated to continue verification efforts, and after verification is obtained, the verification results are included in the updated news with a link to the news that has not been verified.
3. User Generated Content
a. Cyber media must include terms and conditions regarding User Generated Content that are not contrary to the Press Law No. 40 of 1999 and the Journalistic Code of Ethics, which are placed in a clear and visible manner.
b. Cyber media requires every user to register for membership and log in first to be able to publish all forms of User Generated Content. Login provisions will be further regulated.
c. In this registration, cyber media requires users to give written consent that the published User Generated Content:
- Does not contain false, slanderous, sadistic, or obscene content;
- Does not contain content that is prejudiced and hateful related to ethnicity, religion, race, and intergroup (SARA), and promotes violent action;
- Does not contain discriminatory content based on gender and language, and does not degrade the dignity of the weak, poor, sick, mentally disabled, or physically disabled.
d. Cyber media has absolute authority to edit or remove User Generated Content that is contrary to point (c).
e. Cyber media is required to provide a mechanism for reporting User Generated Content that is deemed to violate the provisions in point (c). The mechanism must be provided in a place that is easily accessible to users.
f. Cyber media is required to edit, remove, and take corrective action on every reported User Generated Content that violates the provisions in point (c) as soon as possible and proportionally, no later than 2 x 24 hours after the complaint is received.
g. Cyber media that has fulfilled the provisions in points (a), (b), (c), and (f) is not burdened with responsibility for problems arising from the publication of content that violates the provisions in point (c).
h. Cyber media is responsible for User Generated Content that is reported if no corrective action is taken after the time limit as stated in point (f).
4. Corrections, Clarifications, and Right of Reply
a. Corrections, clarifications, and right of reply refer to the Press Law, Journalistic Code of Ethics, and Right of Reply Guidelines established by the Press Council.
b. Corrections, clarifications, and/or the right of reply must be linked to the news that is corrected, clarified, or to which the right of reply is given.
c. In every news item that contains a correction, clarification, and right of reply, the time of publication of the correction, clarification, and/or right of reply must be included.
d. If a news item from a particular cyber media is disseminated by other cyber media, then:
- The responsibility of the news-making cyber media is limited to the news published in that cyber media or cyber media that is under its technical authority;
- News corrections made by one cyber media must also be made by other cyber media that quotes the news from the cyber media being corrected;
- Media that spreads news from a digital media source and does not correct the news according to the digital media owner’s and/or news maker’s correction, is fully responsible for all legal consequences of the uncorrected news.
e. According to the Press Law, digital media that does not provide a right of reply may be subject to criminal sanctions of a fine of up to Rp500,000,000 (five hundred million rupiah).
5. News Withdrawal
a. Published news cannot be retracted due to censorship by external editorial parties, except related to issues of ethnicity, religion, race, decency, the future of children, traumatic experiences of victims or other special considerations determined by the Press Council.
b. Other digital media sources must follow the withdrawal of news quotes from the original media that has been withdrawn.
c. The withdrawal of news must be accompanied by the reason for the withdrawal and announced to the public.
a. Digital media must clearly distinguish between news products and advertisements.
b. Any news/article/content that is an advertisement and/or paid content must include a statement.